What is Interface in Typescript

In TypeScript, an interface is a powerful way to define the structure of an object. Interfaces allow you to specify the types of properties and methods that an object can have. They provide a way to define contracts within your code, ensuring that certain classes or objects adhere to specific structures and types.

Defining an Interface

An interface is defined using the interface keyword followed by the interface name. Inside the interface, you define properties and methods with their respective types.

interface Person {
  name: string;
  age: number;
  greet(): void;

In this example:

Person is an interface with three members: name, age, and greet.

name and age are properties of type string and number, respectively.

greet is a method that returns void.

Using Interfaces

You can use interfaces to type-check objects, ensuring they adhere to the defined structure.

const person: Person = {
  name: "Alice",
  age: 30,
  greet() {
    console.log(`Hello, my name is ${this.name}`);

person.greet();  // Output: Hello, my name is Alice

In this example, the person object conforms to the Person interface, so TypeScript does not raise any type errors.

Implementing Interfaces in Classes

Classes can implement interfaces to ensure they meet the required structure and behavior.

class Employee implements Person {
  constructor(public name: string, public age: number) {}

  greet() {
    console.log(`Hello, my name is ${this.name}`);

const employee = new Employee("John", 40);
employee.greet();  // Output: Hello, my name is John

In this example:

The Employee class implements the Person interface.

The class provides implementations for the name, age, and greet members as required by the Person interface.

Optional Properties

Interfaces can define optional properties using the ? symbol.

interface Car {
  brand: string;
  model: string;
  year?: number;  // Optional property

const myCar: Car = {
  brand: "Toyota",
  model: "Corolla",

In this example, year is an optional property, so objects adhering to the Car interface can include year but are not required to.

Readonly Properties

Interfaces can define readonly properties that cannot be changed after initialization.

interface Book {
  readonly title: string;
  author: string;

const myBook: Book = {
  title: "TypeScript Guide",
  author: "John Taylor",

// myBook.title = "New Title";  // Error: Cannot assign to 'title' because it is a read-only property.

In this example, title is a readonly property, so any attempt to modify it will result in a compile-time error.

Extending Interfaces

Interfaces can extend other interfaces, allowing you to build on existing structures.

interface Animal {
  name: string;

interface Dog extends Animal {
  breed: string;

const myDog: Dog = {
  name: "Buddy",
  breed: "Golden Retriever",

In this example:

Animal is an interface with a name property.

Dog extends Animal, adding a breed property.

myDog is an object that conforms to the Dog interface, including both name and breed.